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The Perkins Journal
Perkins, Oklahoma
April 8, 2010     The Perkins Journal
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April 8, 2010

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Farm & Ranch THE PERKINS JOURNAL, Thursday, April 8, 2010 - A9 By Payne County Extension Educators Nathan Anderson, Agriculture Educator Dea Rash, FCS Educator Brett Morris, 4-H Youth Development Stan Fimple, Horticulture Educator Suzette Ba~a, Rural Development http://oces.okstate.edu/payne Ag News Tree Seedlings Excellent soil moisture conditions across the state and cool weather has extended tree planting ~ason intoApril. The Oklahoma Department of Forestry still has good supplies of seedlings. Order forms can be picked up at the Payne County Extension Center at 315 W. 6th. Suite 103. Or call 405-747-8320. Breeding Soundness Exam Used to Evaluate Fertility in Bulls Producers searching for a cost efficient method to pro- mote a successful breeding program may find breeding soundness examinations for bulls beneficial. The impor- tance of the bull in a cattle breeding program often is underestimated. A cow is responsible for half the genetic material in only one calf each year. while the bull is respon- sible for half the genetic mate- rial in 20 to 50 calves. The bull's ability to locate cows in estms and breed them is clearly vital to a successful breeding program. For the breeding soundness evaluation to be successful, bulls should be evaluated 30 to 60 days before the start of breeding, It is important to allow sufficient time to replace questionable bulls. Bulls may also be evaluated at the end of breeding to determine if their fertility decreased. A breeding soundness exam is administered by a veterinar- ian and-includes a 1 ) physical examination (feet, legs, eyes. teeth, flesh cover, scrotal size and shape), an 2) internal and 3J external examination of the reproductive tract and 4) semen evaluation for sperm cell motility and normality. -The physical examination studies overall appearance. Flesh cover is one factor to • conditions, number of cows the bull is expected to service and distance required to travel • during breeding. Ideally, bulls should have enough fat cover at the start of breed'mg so their • ribs appear smooth across their sides. A body condition• score 6 (where 1 = emaciated and 9 = very obese) is the target body condition prior to the breeding season. Sound feet and legs are very important because if they are unsound, this can result in the inability to travel and mount for mating. The general health of the bull is critical since sick, aged and injured bulls are less likely to mate and usually have lower semen quality. The external examination of the reproduc- tive tract includes evaluation of the testes, spermatic cords and epididymis. Scrotal cir- cumference is an important measure since it is directly related to the total mass of sperm producing tissue, sperm cell normality and the onset of puberty in the bull and his female offspring. Bulls with large circumference will pro- duce more sperm with higher normality and also reach sexual maturity sooner. Examination of the external underline before and during semen collection will detect any inflammation, foreskin. adhesions, warts, abscesses and penile deviations. The internal examination is conducted to detect any abnormalities in the internal reproductive organs. The semen evaluation is done by examining a sample of the semen under a micro- scope. The veterinarian will estimate the percentage of sperm cells that are moving in a forward" direction. This estimate is called "motility". In addition, the sperm cells will be individually examined Any bull meeting all mini- mum standards for the physi- cal exam, scrotal size and semen quality will be classed as a "satisfactory" potential breeder. Bulls that fail any minimum standard will be probably be given a rating of "classification deferred." Bulls that fail a minimum standard but with little or no chance of improvement, will receive the "unsatisfactory" designation. BecauSe of the increased incidence of trichomoniasis (a venereal disease of cattle commonly called "trich"), visit with your veterinarian about the need for testing of bulls. Currently all of the By Sean Hubbard STILLWATER. Okla. - Spring has sprung, and Oklahomans are eager to get a line in the water and start reeling in some monsters. However, if pond owners had a problem with pond weeds last year, they can pretty much expect the same problem this year. Now is the time to do something about it. There are two main options for pond owners. Depending' on the purpose of the pond, applying her- bicide or stocking grass carp have their plusses and minuses. "'One of the main risks in applying herbicides to aquatic plants is that too much plant material will be killed and as it decays it will use up all the dissolved oxygen in the pond and suf- focate the fish," Beem said. "This risk is much lower in the spring and is usually less work and lower cost to evaluate. Body condition for proper shape or "morphol- treat early because you are can be affected by length of ogy". Less than 30 percent of treating a smaller area." the breeding season, grazing the cells should be found to Only herbicides that and supplemental feeding have an abnormal shape, are labeled for aquatic states surrounding Oklahoma have regulations for breeding bulls moving into those states. Most states now require test- ing of bulls transported across state lines for breeding purposes. This rating indicates that the bull will need another test to confirm status. Mature bulls should be retested after six weeks. Mature bulls will be classified as unsatisfactory potential breeders if they fail subsequent tests. Young bulls that are just reaching puberty may be rated as "classification deferred", and then later meet all of the minimum standards. Therefore caution should be exercised when making cull- ing decisions based on just one breeding soundness exam. Many producers work hard to manage their cows for high fertility. They may assume that the bulls will do their expected duties. However, it's important to pay close attention to bulls to establish successful breeding. sites and which are listed as being effective on the weed you have should be used. Caution should be taken on products not labeled for aquatic sites, as they have not been tested to insure that fish will remain healthy to eat. "Grass carp were imported to the U.S. sev- eral decades ago because of their unusual ability to eat aquatic plants and the fact that they are excellent table fare," Beem said. Ponds that are subject to overflow into public waters should not be stocked with grass carp. If this is the case. and grass carp are stocked. spillway barriers should be constructed. Through this process, pond owners are advised to confer with their county Natural Resource Conservation Service. Whatever the choice, now is the time to act for pond owners. P.O. Box 842 Stillwater, OK 74076-0842 405-372-3367 iNi:975 :$f5 0mbt ,IX4 Ch01 ef A er Green ;;::: ~50Jilli:~Ttat~orF~n~Wi~eelA~t9825h~,2O,8-38Duals, ~: 1989:~!1~ Shot Hood Stand Up 51eet~ Petef~uift Air Ride B Model (at:H~tOr 1~R.24.5 mbl~r ,989207 miles • 1994 P~it 179 ~o~ flood Ilnibuilt Sleeper 60 5er~ Detroit ~,875117mile~ 93~J051~ Reldtead PTO Hook-ul~ lii~i~:: .................................... ::iiii:: ...................... : Control your comfort and energy consumption -- all at once. 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